Mothers may turn to alcohol and drugs as a form of self-medication and relief from the pain, fear, isolation and guilt that are associated with domestic violence.
Alcohol and drug use can help eliminate or reduce these feelings and therefore become part of how she copes with the abuse.
Agencies should apply these procedures to all circumstances of domestic violence.
Most domestic violence is perpetrated by men against women, and this procedure provides guidance on safeguarding the children who, through being in households / relationships, are aware of or targeted as part of the violence.
The abuse is often carried out by several members of a family and may, therefore, increase the child's sense of powerlessness and be harder for professionals to identify and respond to.
However, agencies should apply the guidance to all situations of domestic violence.
The link between child physical and sexual abuse and domestic violence is high, with estimates ranging between 30% to 66% depending upon the study (Hester et al ; Edleson ; Humphreys and Thiara ).
All the outcomes for children can be adversely affected if they are living with domestic violence and abuse - the impact is usually on every aspect of a child's life.
They tend to have low self-esteem and experience increased levels of anxiety, depression, anger and fear, aggressive and violent behaviours, including bullying, lack of conflict resolution skills, lack of empathy for others and poor peer relationships, poor school performance, anti-social behaviour, pregnancy, alcohol and substance misuse, self blame, hopelessness, shame and apathy, post traumatic stress disorder - symptoms such as hyper-vigilance, nightmares and intrusive thoughts - images of violence, insomnia, enuresis and over protectiveness of their mother and/or siblings.
[Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, 1997]), premature birth, foetal psychological damage from the effect of abuse on the mother's hormone levels, foetal physical injury and foetal death ( Robert Anda, Vincent Felitti, J.
Whilst honour based violence can culminate in the death of the victim, this is not always the case.