During Classical Antiquity, the Nubian capital was at Meroë.In ancient Greek geography, the Meroitic kingdom was known as Ethiopia (a term also used earlier by the Assyrians when encountering the Nubians).The Kingdom of Kush is mentioned in the Bible as having saved the Israelites from the wrath of the Assyrians, although disease among the besiegers was the main reason for the failure to take the city.The war that took place between Pharaoh Taharqa and the Assyrian king Sennacherib was a decisive event in western history, with the Nubians being defeated in their attempts to gain a foothold in the Near East by Assyria.
The 20th century saw the growth of Sudanese nationalism and in 1953 Britain granted Sudan self-government. Since independence, Sudan has been ruled by a series of unstable parliamentary governments and military regimes.
Sennacherib's successor Esarhaddon went further, and invaded Egypt itself, deposing Taharqa and driving the Nubians from Egypt entirely.
Taharqa fled back to his homeland where he died two years later.
In 1995, the United Nations (UN) imposed sanctions against it.
By the eighth millennium BC, people of a Neolithic culture had settled into a sedentary way of life there in fortified mudbrick villages, where they supplemented hunting and fishing on the Nile with grain gathering and cattle herding.
A missionary sent by Byzantine empress Theodora arrived in Nobatia and started preaching Christianity about 540 AD. However, Makuria was a Melkite Christian, unlike Nobatia and Alodia.