Following his death in 632, his followers rapidly expanded the territory under Muslim rule beyond Arabia, conquering huge and unprecedented swathes of territory (from the Iberian Peninsula in west to modern day Pakistan in east) in a matter of decades.Arabia soon became a more politically peripheral region of the Muslim world as the focus shifted to the vast and newly conquered lands.Al-Magar is where the first domestication of animals occurred, particularly the horse, during the Neolithic period.Jubail Church is a 4th-century church building near Jubail, Eastern Province, discovered in 1986.2300 BC) discovered in a door-socket: "The ships of Dilmun brought him wood as tribute from foreign lands Thamud is the name of an ancient civilization in the Hejaz known from the 1st millennium BC to near the time of Muhammad.More than 9,000 Thamudic inscriptions were recorded in south-west Saudi Arabia. 100, gave the name of Nabatene to the borderland between Arabia and Syria, from the Euphrates to the Red Sea.The area of modern-day Saudi Arabia formerly consisted of four distinct regions: Hejaz, Najd and parts of Eastern Arabia (Al-Ahsa) and Southern Arabia ('Asir).
It is the only nation with both a Red Sea coast and a Persian Gulf coast and most of its terrain consists of arid desert and mountains.
Its kings exercised an influence over a number of associated tribes more by personal prestige than by coercive settled authority.
Their first capital was Qaryat Dhāt Kāhil, today known as Qaryat al-Fāw.
He united the four regions into a single state through a series of conquests beginning in 1902 with the capture of Riyadh, the ancestral home of his family, the House of Saud.
Saudi Arabia has since been an absolute monarchy, effectively a hereditary dictatorship governed along Islamic lines.
For much of the 10th century the Isma'ili-Shi'ite Qarmatians were the most powerful force in the Persian Gulf.